Being a Hindu- What is the meaning of word Hindu

Read a lot on Hindu civilization.First time,the term Hindu  propped up was when I had to fill a competitive exam form and had to mention my religion.I did mention Hindu,but was uncomfortable,not because I was shy or ashamed,but just that did not find it logical enough to be shared for an exam.Then ,when my passport was made,I again was identified as a Hindu,instead of only  asRahul Upmanyu.

So since then,always been wanting to find out the meaning of the word Hindu.Onier WIlliams who compiled famous dictionary from a large range of Sanskrit literature,could not find any indigenous root for this word.The word is said to have been derived from Persian “Hindu”.Some Scholars of Hindutva have tried to link the word to Sapta Sindhu which is from Rig Veda,expression used in Rig Veda is Saptasaindhavah.Plus RigVeda is not very clear whether the term stands for a country,its people or simply seven rivers of Punjab.Also our countrymen were never known as Hindus in Southeast Asia in the pre-Islamic Era.

Hiuen Tsang,who visited our country between 630 ad- 645, says the word Shintu,could be heard outside our borders,It was unknown outside India.I think we can conclude that the word Hindu was an import -used in Avesta(ancient Iranian).It was simply the way they could pronounce Sindhu.However,it is also possible that ancient Iranians might have also used the word in derogatory way.Though the two people had much in common.It is written that rift appeared with the rise of Zarathustra.With Archaemind empire, Iranians started to looked down upon people of India as worshippers of Dev,their word of demon.They were using the word Asura for their own deity.With the spread of Buddhism,people from India were called But- prast.

Infact,the word was picked up by Arab invaders and used quite extensively.I see a lot of us talk so passionately about the word Hindu(and say Garv se kaho hum hindu hai etc), and its philosophy, if what is written above is true then off course the word is not important.What is significant though is the people of this country and our heritage.

Inspiration to write this text came from Sita Ram Goel’s book.

Posted in Meaning of the word Hindu and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , by with no comments yet.

Arab &Turks Invasion of India

Map of north india During the invasion of Mahmud of Gaznavi

Map of north india During the invasion of Mahmud of Gaznavi

December is notorious when it comes to talking about destruction of religious places of worship.It is ironic or I would say – just so happened  that I decided to write about Arab invasion of India and the most famous impact on Indian(Hindu) psyche comes with the story of desecration and destruction of Somnath Temple by Mahmud of Ghazni

Somnath temple

Somnath temple

The temple of Somnath was attacked by Mahmud of Gazni along with 30000,volunteers from Turkistan in 1022,who had marched with him .When Mahmud eventually reached the place he saw the stone idol five yards in height,The King struck of f the nose.Two pieces of idols to broken and sent to Ghazni,they are there till date

I have been on the look out for great content to read.Unfortunately,at times you stumble upon a kind of content,which makes you not read more,but then the story is so compelling that you are bound to read the complete book with as much interest as is possible.In this current enviorment,when we are trying to work as closely as possible,inter connected and when isolation is not possible, in that scenario,this kind of knowledge can possible corrupt your mind.So please read it further only as an information source.

We will talk about the heroic struggle of Rulers of India  from  invading Muslim(initially Arabs) armies.India has always had invasions,however Muslim Invasions had the far reaching impact because the invaders from Arab land not only to come and captured the land,but also converted the natives to their own faith.We see after the death of Prophet, in 632 ad,The Byzantine provinces of Palestine and Syria fell to Arabs in six months.Next came Sassanid empire which included Iraq,Iran and Khorasan(North eastern part of Iran- included parts of Afghanistan,Turkmenistan,Uzbekistan).The Persians were quickly defeated by 643,the boundaries of Caliphate touched the frontiers of India.The Turkish speaking countries of Inner Mongolia,Bukhara,Tashkand and Samarkand etc,were annexed by 650.In the West, Byzantine, province of Egypt was occupies in 640.The Arab armies captured Spain in 709 AD.So, not only did the victories took place at such break neck speed but so was the conversion of people to Islamic faith.

However, it took close to 70 years for Arabs to make any impact on the Indian soil.Arab invasions of Indian territories started from 634 ad,with Thane & Broach attacked,but it was repulsed and the Arab general was killed.By 680,after more than 16 expeditions, finally Makran the port in Sindh was captured.

In the end Muhammad Bin Quasim was sent by the Governor of Irag,in 712, the entire Sindh including Multan came under him.Once he came back, the regions were independent again.But, Islamic armies came back and recaptured Sindh,this time reached till Ujjain(via Rajputana, and Broach in South).Their advance was checked by Chalukya ruler ,Pulakesin Avaani-Janasraya.Battle of Rajasthan

It seemed Gujarat under Chalukya’s offered the most resistance to Muslim Invaders.So we can say that it took Arab/Turkish invaders 570 yrs to reach Delhi.

Hindus lost Kabul in the closing decade of the 10th century,In 963, a Turkish slave was able to take control of Kabul with his seat in Ghazni.In our history texts and general awareness it is assumed that two small time rulers of Sultanate in Afghanistan,fought and won many battles with the rulers of North India.(However,they by no means were small time)

territory under Gazni rule

territory under Gazni rule


Mahmud of Gaznavi was a powerful ruler with his Kingdom spread over Khorasan,Iran,Iraq and most of Central Asia,Punjab and Multan. Indian rulers of that time did not have standing armies,they needed to mobalise the troops.Peshawar, during those times was ruled by Anandpala.(Anadpala’s father was initially defeated by Mahmud).He again invaded India in 1008,this time he met with the combined armies from Ujjain,Gwalior,Kalinjar,Kanuaj and Delhi and Ajmer.There was a battle,however Anandpala forces were defeated and he moved up to Kashmir.Shahiyas were eventually defeated after 50 years of struggle.

Mahmud did not have much success against the rulers of Gwalior(Chandellas),he invaded them till 1022.(by now it had been 22 yrs he Mahmud had started to raid in India)

Muhammad Ghuri  came after the Gaznavis and advanced upon Gujarat in AD 1178, with a large army.Chaulukya army defeated the turks at the foot of Mount Abu.After this Muhammad Ghuri did not lead another exepedition against Hindu prince for next 12 yrs.In some folk tales it is mentioned that Pritviraja 3,defeated Ghouri 22 times,while  there was a fight between the two in 1192,again when Prithviraja(Prithvi Raj Chauhan the famous ruler of Delhi and Ajmer,whose brother inlaw was Jayachand and who ran with Sanyogita) was eventually defeated and killed.

** Even today Afghans vent their anger by stamping on the grave of Chauhan because according to them Prithviraj had killed Ghori.**

Please note: lot of text is inspired from Wikipedia and Sita Ram Goel’s book.



Posted in Mahmud Gazni-Arab India invasion and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , by with no comments yet.

Love-Sex & Dhoka-Shah Jahan-Aurangzeb


We all know that Shah Jahan built Taj Mahal and red fort,however there are some more interesting tell tales of his reign that I would like to share.Moguls would not marry their daughters.This was a policy introduced by Akbar to avoid less conflicts for the throne.Shah Jahan had 3 daughters and 4 sons.

ShahJahan like earlier Moghul rulers had very active sex life,infact,even after Mumtaz died,he continued to have sex with multiple partners every day,at times with wives of his officials.

According to Niccolao Manucci,Shah Jahan died because of Urinary disorder by the over doses of aphrodisiacs,which was taken to increase sexual desires.

Having read from lot of sources, it seems Shah Jahan imposed Sharia Law, back in the country,also restricted the restoration of temples and churches.(though he was born from a Rajput mother).But dont think he was a religious zealot.

His greatest fear of brothers killing their own brothers came true.He himself, had to kill his half brothers.So, when his own sons fought,he as a father must have felt the pain. Off course, the severed head of Dara Shikoh was presented to him, by Aurangzeb.

In my view,this disease of killing once own blood is not only with Moughals.I think if you are in power and would want to to have power,being a ruler is such a big high that you might in fact go ahead and do it.From Mahabharata times,we have known that brothers can become your enemies.Off-course,once own blood is not easy,however how can we forget king Ashoka,the great ruler India ever produced,who also had to fight a battle of succession. Infact, if you are in the business of killing,I think after sometime once own blood does not matter much,but what matters is your legacy and the name of your lineage.The instance where Shah Jahan, would have sex with the wives of his nobles, makes me wonder,what kind of life these rulers and its people were leading.All too powerful.

Would say Sex and violence were the stories of all mughal Rulers.Their lives are typical pot boilers.

Aurangzeb killed his two brothers(he chased off his third Shah Shuja),Murad was actually sentenced to death for killing his own Wazir,while offcourse Dara Shikoh was killed as a rival to his throne.Dara’ elder son Suleiman was also sent to prison with daily dose of pousta(pousta is a drink made of poppy heads crushed and soaked in water for a nightA large cup of this beverage was brought to them early morning and thye were not given anything to  eat until it was swallowed,which first turned him into a zombie then later killed him.

Been inspired by Alex Rutherford,Jadunath Sarkar and few others.

Posted in Shah Jahan and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , by with no comments yet.

September11Crusade vs Jihad

The Crusade which began after September 11 with Air crash on Twin towers of World Trade Center, is still on.The battle between terrorism,terrorists(Jehad word has been hijacked) with US and its allies after the attack of 9/11 has entered never ending phase.Though countries like India have been fighting this since 80’s and Israel  from the day of its inception .

19 highly motivated terrorists hijacked four airlines jets, and crashed them killing close to 5000, Christians, Muslims, Hindus,Jews, atheists.

The most audaciously planned terror attack ever against US.This 9/11 attack completely changed the perception of  US people,as they became increasingly paranoid about flying and the world is general started to debate on  topics like Clash of civilizations.People went back to history books to find  precedence, going back to crusades and  Jehads fought between Christians and Muslims over Jerusalem.(It is quite amusing to think that these three religions have one holy place, called Jerusalem,Christians, Muslims and Jews all view it as their holy place.The question is why? in a way i think these guys are brothers, as they all belong to the same land,they would have drank water from the same source,eaten food from the same soil,Tthe question is why three religions)this holds importance as Khalid Sheikh Mohammad,the chief architect of the attack was strongly critical of US policy in middle east and Israel.YesOsama bin Laden and Al Qaeda  have towered in the minds of US citizens as the epitome of terrorism.

People also started to revisit the times when the likes of Salaudin,Franks, were around.

One religion has been specifically cornered ever since,and it is stated that all terrorists are Muslims, but not all muslims are terrorists.There have been other books like Clash of Fundamentalism, which give a deep insight into the origins of Islam,fight against Pagan tribes,concept of 72 hoors in Jannat, US policy of treating the world .All terror attacks are more or less traced back to Pakistan. What China is to cheap goods, so is Pakistan for terrorism.

Looking back, we realize that US society has changed a lot and since 9/11, there hasn’t been a single attack on the US soil after 9/11.This speaks volume of effort put by US homeland security in making sure that zero terror attacks take place. Of course World trade center has changed too,ground zero as it is called, is now being made with a memorial and new world trade center.

Well, September 11 or 9/11, has changed the geography of the world(my favorite subject)


Posted in Uncategorized by with no comments yet.

Similarities between Buddha and Christ

similar teachings

similar teachings

People say,  core message of all religions is one . At times,religion may also be termed as Philosophy.Common men and women, who are involved in their everyday grind of life- i.e.  earning,love making,kids(buying diapers),may not get time to delve on the deeper tenets of religion or its preachings.They almost more often rely on saints,mahatmas or noble men to help them, guide them,make them understand the true meaning of  life,which kind of helps the common man, to think or help divert the mind towards the spiritual side or may help them come closer to God.So, primarily,they act as messengers or catalyst.Common man may know Prakrit,but may not know Sanskrit,so the noble men,may translate the some interesting stuff, in the language,which people can understand and grasp easily(It is like letting everybody enjoy the  fruits of knowledge tree).May be that is one reason why Mirza Galib, though a known name now,did not get as much recognition as was given to his compatriots,while he was alive.

Like Jesus-Buddha spoke in parables.

Attributed to Buddha are many miracles,a number of which are very similar to those described in the new testament.

Buddha begins to teach at the age of 30,similar to Jesus.Like Jesus Buddha had 12 principal disciples .Jesus first lights up Nathanael sitting under afig tree,Buddha had a bo tree.

Both Buddha and Christ have one favorite disciple and one who betrays.Both of them rejected blood sacrifices.The parallels in teachings are many, some texts of both faiths coincide word by word.Like Jesus,Buddha called himself the son on man.Buddha performs miracles.he walks across the Ganges in flood,like Jesus walks across the waters of the lake.(Walking of water is mostly unheard of custom in Jewish traditions).

There is a story of a poor widow,which is both in Buddha texts and Marks Gospel.In both cases disciples failed to establish any religious community for the faith,instead they operated in small numbers.As theological disputes broke out between Sthaviras and Mahasanghikas,and between Jewish Christians and Hellenist Christians.

In both, councils are convened,one in Rajagriha and one in Jerusalem.The earthly existence of a Bodhisattva has the single purpose of leading all souls on to the path of release,the path that constitutes liberation from the cycles of rebirth.Mahayana school,had just evolved from self oriented Hinyana. Yazidi tribes who are called the devil worshipers by orthodox Muslims,It is possible that these remote communities might have preserved the original Christian doctrine in a far less adulterated form,than did the Church of Rome with all its emperors,popes and rituals.The tribal communities represent direct descendants of the Essenes and Nazaranes,who opposed the dominant Hellenistic St Paul group.

An interesting revelation: The man who laid down the social and religious laws was Manu,the law giver of the Egyptians was Manes.Person who codified the Greek laws was Minos and the leader of Hebrew tribes and author of ten commandments was Moses.

Text is inspired from the Book: Jesus Lived in India

Posted in Parallel between Gautam Buddha and Jesus and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , by with no comments yet.

Crusades-Battle between religious zealots

In the name of crusades

In the name of Christ and Mohammad

Since almost two years I have been tempted to write about crusades,which have captured the imagination of Islamic and Christian communities(and some history zealots like me) since almost a 1000 years.The word crusade became popular or at least I came across a lot during the second Iraq war, or I should say post Sept 11.Public interest,was probably resurrected in context of Americans trying to avenge the attacks of Sept 11.

I remember also listen to a song as a child “Jerusalem is lost”.And Yes, also heard that people are interested to know how the crusades really started.So according to one reliable source,of which I trust,it all started during the time,when Islam had already been in its Prime.

Jerusalem- is considered to be a holy place for Jews,Muslims and Christians as well.Some say,crusades were started byone person Pope Urban II.The way Pope Urban tried to mobilise people and raise passions,it kind of comes across as Christian version of Jehad.

Jerusalem was projected as a holy city supreme shrine and celestial Kingdom.Security of Holy Sculpture was at stake.Crusade was being portrayed as Salvation point on the battlefields of Jerusalem.It was also the war for money and power,as lands towards east were considered rich.

Crusader's journey map

Crusader’s journey map

As the first wave of crusaders(Led by Godfrey) crossed Europe to Constantinople,they forced conversion and massacre thousands of Jews, to avenge the killing Christ.During  the same period Arab world was divided and fighting among themselves.They could not provide good resistance to the invading army.

The time crusaders were in Jerusalem,they were exhausted and each crusader was promised possession of any house marked by his shield and arms,hence the crusading army searched Jerusalem and boldly killed the citizens,culling wives,children whole households.

Though- something to be noted- Crusader chronicles for propaganda exaggerated the scale of their crimes.

The second crusade was when Saladin(some say a noble and just ruler) recaptured Jerusalem.

The third Crusade was between Saladin and Richard the Lion Heart.On 4th July 1190,Richard the Lion Heart,King of England and Philip II king of France set out for the third Crusade to liberate Jerusalem.On Sep 1192 and almost a year at war,Saladin and Richard the Lion heart entered truce with Saladin still keeping Jerusalem, but allowing Christians to pray and make Pilgrimage.

Interestingly on his way home Richard was captured by the German King and was only released after one year,when a huge ransom was paid for him.

After Saladin died there was another attack on Jerusalem by Frederick II,who at that time was the most powerful ruler of Europe.(Damn the images of game of thrones are coming to my mind)

I was inspired from-Jerusalem by Simon Sebag Montefiore.


Posted in Crusades and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , by with no comments yet.

Gurus-Mughals- Sikhism

History is always contentious .To some it is fact,while for rest, is a bunch of lies but for some it is an eye opener.At most times, only the winners of battles and Kings get the opportunity to write the history and they show what they think needs to be shown.

So making an opinion after reading history books or articles can be a deadly sin.Therefore, request all to do your own research, and at least try and read two books on one topic to come any close to forming an opinion.

History hasn’t been kind to any one religion or race.To be able to write on a religion can be tricky,however our history is so entangled with religion that one cannot just skip them,it is only now that fewer countries of the world have State religion.

I happen to have recently visited Bangla Sahib Gurudwara to help pray for a Friend’s Father survival.(who was fighting for his life)

It was also the anniversary of Operation Blue Star and a lot was written in  media about Operations blue star.I remember as a six year old, the repercussions of state policies changed the outlook of how people viewed each other.My Grand parents lived in Delhi-Karol Bagh and we did visit them,immediately after the Mayhem.

Follow that ,we had a decade long insurgency-I read a lot of violence in Punjab.So, later when ever I would visit Delhi from Bhopal and see the Turban clad Sikh men,would get scared.(Ironically, this could have been the idea of Guru Har Govind, to install fear in Mughal soldiers -Psychological warfare)

Baba Nanak, was a Hindu reformer from Punjab,born in Khatri community in 1459 at  Talwandi(now- Nanakana).Guru Nanak believed in one living God.Gurus from Nanak till Arjun Dev the fifth guru,won accolades from Mughal emperors by their saintly lives.Before Aurangzeb, their was no religious persecution of gurus.

Under Arjun,the fifth Guru, the number of sikh converts increased and also Guru’s wealth.Guru ji organsized a permanent source of income.Agents were posted in every city from Kabul to Dacca,to collect tributes from followers and have it sent to Amritsar(central treasury).Guru was treated like a King.For some reason Guru supported Prince Khusrau(Shahjahan) in his fight against his father Jahangir and gave him monetory help as well.Shahjahan was defeated and Guru was asked to pay a fine of 2 lakh rupees.Arjun refused to pay the fine and was then given punishment,out of which he died.After his death,Guru Har gobind(1606) became the guru and started to train himself in martial exercises and raised a small army.

While in Amritsar,Gurus forces and imperial forcesof new ruler ShanJahan fought each other over some game bird,there was a slaughter and Guru’s forces won.When reinforcements came,they too were beaten back.Lot of people from far and wide became his followers and then more Mughal forces were sent to crush him.His property and house in Amritsar was seized and Guru fled to Kiratpur in Kashmir hills.(1945)

Guru Teg Bahadur became the seventh guru.It was Aurangzed time and mass conversion were happening.Guru Tegh opposed it and encouraged people to resist it.He was taken as prisoner and was tortured for 5 days,before beheaded on his refusal  to accept Islam(1675)

So finally open was broke out between Sikh and Islam.It was under tenth Guru Govind rai(1676-1708),that Mughal faced their most fierce enemy.Guru fought from Anandpur fort.He fined Hindus around 125 rs for saluting any Mohammdan saint’s tomb.He lived in a princely state. He fought the Rajas of J&K and Mughals alike.

Eventually Guru had to leave Anandpur fort and leave for South India.While on his way,his four sons perished fighting.The Guru reached Nander on the Godavari, and after staying there for a year and having made peace with the new Mughal ruler Bahadur Shah I,he was stabbed to death by an Afghan.

Inspired by text from -A short history of Aurangzib-Jadunath Sarkar.

Posted in Sikh Gurus and Mughals and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , by with no comments yet.

Good Friday!

Jesus christWhy is it that the day,when Jesus Christ was crucified is called Good Friday,and not anything else.Probably,the day when good sacrificed for the greater cause of manhood/womanhood,people may call it good.Though a religious force/clerics conniving with the rulers to have somebody crucified just because they don’t follow the beaten path,speaks of less faith and a sense of insecurity, in their own faith.(samaj ke thekedar)

Very rare do we have examples when new thoughts have been welcomed without bloodshed and violence(eg Buddhism/Jainism)I don’t recollect a violent reaction when these religions started.(or any act of crucification).May be because these religion or say “way of life” were started by all powerful princes.

I think the time when Jesus was crucified in Jerusalem,Judaism was under attack for sometime and Romans had  occupied the mind/body and soul of the city and its  people.Romans had their own set of god and goddesses.So it seemed society was craving for change and change is what they got.

Recently I came across some videos,which talked about life of Jesus Christ.The video states that Jesus Christ probably studied in India.(the time he was born in bible,it is mentioned that angels(Buddhist monks) from east visited mother Mary.Probably they took the silk route as Buddhism was the most popular religion that time. Infact, it also states that from the age of 14 till i think 28-27, Jesus was travelling in India learning ancient texts/meditation and being a saint was also able to heal people.The lost tribes of Israel, it seemed travelled all the way to India/Kashmir- Features/language match with Jewish features.

As per the video, the way Jesus was crucified, people don’t die,they continue to live on for hours.So probably resurrection could be the way how Jesus with his meditation powers might have come back to life and considering the threat to him and his followers decided to spend the rest of his life in the familiar environment ie in India.(Interesting theory) Check out these videos.

Posted in Christ and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , by with no comments yet.

Gupta Empire-Golden Age of India

Gupta Empire

Gupta Empire

We don’t have many people these days talking about Gupta period.Neither, there are enough history books exclusively available covering their period,unlike what we have for Mughal time,Mythology(Mahabharataa) or even about King Ashoka times.Some how Gupta period has been completely forgotten by historians.I mean, what is being spread more prominently  is the negative aspect of their rule -extinct of Buddhism in India,centralization of power among higher castes,and off course land grants based on caste system.So quite a few ills which our society is struggling  have come from or probably originated during Gupta empire.Gupta empire was considered the golden period of India.However,if we talk to people today,they struggle coming up with a single name of ruler from its period.They might at least remember one or two rulers from Mughal,Mauryan but Gupta period,they just don’t.So, probably it has been deliberately ignored.

Therefore, attempt in this blog is made to revive this period of excellence and phenomenal growth.

Sri Gupta, was the one from whose reign we can say that Gupta as an Empire took off.(240-280 AD).After, Sri Gupta came Ghatohkacha. It was in 319 AD that King of Kings Chandragupta became the ruler of Oudh,Gangetic plain and Magdha.Lichchhavi’s(modern day Nepal border areas) played a significant role in the making of the Empire.Lichchhavi daughter was married to Chandragupta.

Samudra Gupta, became the ruler in 335, AD.The name meant, he was protected by sea, or his rule spread till sea.The Allahabad pillar has all details.Samudra Gupta had to fight his elder brother for the succession of the throne.Brother’s name was Kacha.

At Allahbad pillar,Samudra Gupta inscribed the details of his conquests and achievements.This was in stark contrast to how the pillar had details of Asoka.It showed that two kings were poles apart in content and character.

Samudra Gupta,after defeating his nearby mordern day Barelli,Mathura started his South Campaign.He fought and conquered territory till Vishakapatnam.

Chandragupta II reigned from 375 AD -414 AD.Chinese Traveller Fa Hien travelled to India,from China via famous Buddhist places.He reliased that Buddhist traditions in China were imperfactly followed, so he traveled with fellow scholors via  cities like Khotan, Kushgar.Hiyana form of Budddhism was followed there.The religion was called Shamanism.(The religion which was followed by Chengez Khan).

After crossing Indus the monks from China came to a place called Udyana(where the language spoken was of central India or Middle Kingdom).After that, they reached Taxila & Peshawar,where King Kanisha had built a grand monument.Crossing the range,they came up the region where both Himyana and Mahayana flourished.Even Punjab had lot of Buddhist monasteries.

It was in the middle Kingdom(the  land of Bramanas),where people were prosperous and happy.Throughout the country,no one killed anyone,thieves were merely fined,people did n’t drink,they didn’t even  have onion or garlic.Only the Chandalas would go hunting and fishing.Evidently Patliputra didn’t enjoy as much prime a position as it enjoyed during the Mauryan times.People of Middle Kingdom were rich and involved in a lot of charity and philanthropic activites.

Chandra gupta II or Vikramaditya ,had his elder brother killed,Who was willing to give his wife Dhruva devi to a Saka ruler.Vikramaditya went to SAKA ruler’s palace as a disguise of the queen and killed the King.He came back to his Kingdom and killed his coward brother  and married his wife.(I mean, which kingdom would want to have a spineless ruler,who is giving his wife, to protect his own rule)

Kumara Gupta came to rule in 415 AD.

During Skand Gupta’s time,he fought with Huns in North and Pushyamitras in south.He restored the lost pride of the Empire.Gupta rulers appointed kings based on merit .(It was done by the father)

Buddhism and Jainism still flourished under Gupta rule,however the Gupta’s were followers of  Brahminical religion.Sanchi continued to be a great place for Buddhist learning.During those days, there were no libraries.

FYI -Brahminical religion insisted on the contemplation of formless,in which art could not originate(Therefore, Budh Poja or image worship was probably an import from Hellenistic civilization) .Perhaps the earliest form of Brahminical stone structure is the Vishnu shrine at Besnagar near the Heliodorous pillar,second century BC.Satpatha Brahmana describes as Hindu Shrine consisting of two sheds forms of pots and beans and covered with reeds and mats.Religious services and rituals were performed in open air.

Information source is RadhaKumud Mukheerji’s Book on Gupta Empire

Posted in Guptas and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , by with no comments yet.


Aryavarta realm

Aryavarta realm

Recently watched some episodes of New  Mahabharata coming  on TV.

Initially the new version of Mahabharata on TV,turned out to be interesting enough.However,over a period of time it  became a drag,much like popular Hindi Soap operas currently on air and back ground sounds enamating, reflected a Diwali night.So have quit watching it,I think the old version was much faster.The new version started with a lot of promise as I liked their attention to details in dressing etc, but later a big bore.

Inspired  and bored by the TV show, went ahead and purchased a book called Govinda’ the Aryavartta Cronicles.

I believe three names/characters greatly influenced the story of  Mahabharata  and they were largely responsible for The Great Mahabharata war.

Consider Draupadi first- She was one fiery out spoken lady.Her so called  sharp remarks,time and again fuelled the fire already burning among rulers and brothers at large.

Govinda-The greatest architect and so called means to end gentleman.He orchestrated the greatest assassinations of that era(I would say one man Mossad-The Israeli secret service)

Suyodhan(Duryoudhan)- No story is complete till you have a villain defined.So, he was happy to take the mantle of anti-hero and went full throttle with his perceived sense of righteousness.

I loved reading it,went like a racy thriller.The book has its own, some interesting revelations on Mahabharata.

Consider this one,Jayathratha, the mightiest of the kings during that period, and had a garrison stationed close to Hastinapur.Bhisma,Dhrathrashtra and other nobles of Hastinapur were all scared of him.Jayadratha,ruled from Magdha,modern day Patliputra.

He was an emperor,whom the rulers of Aryavartta would bow.If we remember the folktale,it says he was killed and had his body parts  thrown in two separate directions.But,as per the author he was defeated in a duel,with Bhim and killed,instead of any theatrics.

One of the most amazing characters at display was of Draupadi.She appeared to be in love with Govinda,like most girls of that era.

She seemed to be a woman with her own mind.Her inability to have any choice in choosing her husband speaks of the social climate of that period. Infact,she was actually married to Yudhisthir and not Arjun, in the Palace of her father.What we commonly call the Kaurava Prince as ” Duryodhan”, his name could probably been  Suyoddhan(cannot imagine parents giving their child a name starting by Dur-or bad),and he seemed to be a mature politician, statesman and good human being.Infact,Yodhisthir used to often ask for money,to place bets and at times to pay off debts.Suyodhan seems to have been more peaceful,though Dhatrashtra appears to be one power hungry person,who loved the throne,and wouldn’t relinquish it even though his son, the Prince was 46 yrs old.Suyodhan apparently wasn’t really jealous nor insecure.Infact, it was Dharma raj Yodhistar,who could not compare himself with his warrior brothers.

An interesting bit is about,Vyasa,who was the grandfather of Pandu and Dhratrashtra,he himself  was a love child.So when the daughters of Kashi,were married to both Hastinapur princes,non of them was able to concieve a child.It was such that fertility of the Princes was in doubt.So Vyasa was called to help produce the lineage of Hastinapur and carry forward the bloodline of King Hastin.It is difficult to believe the folktales,which say that since looking at Vyasa, the princess closed her eyes and that was why a blind son was born.

It seems these were Great men and warriors,who walked the lands of Northern India.The book tries to explain the reason why there was a war.It took place between two sets of people,one who controlled the science and engineering and who wanted to dominate vs the other group,who controlled the scriptures.

I think I might want to recommend people to read Govinda/Kaurava and visit

Posted in Uncategorized and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , by with no comments yet.